It is believed that any person can grow radishes, even if for the first time in his life he decided to start a summer cottage business. This unpretentious culture gives us the first spring vitamins, because we make the very first salad from our garden from radishes and greens - it is with them that we see off the spring vitamin deficiency and restore strength after winter. Almost all summer residents grow this vegetable, but the trouble is that sometimes it is not a root crop that grows, but a radish tops. Let's try to figure out why this is happening.
Features of growing radishes
Radishes are grown on nutritious light soils, neutral, very weak acidification can be tolerated. He loves moisture and sun, so they sow him in open sunny areas, it is better if the radishes are protected from strong winds. Radish grows at an air temperature of +10 degrees, but can easily survive frosts up to -2 degrees. Radish is called a plant of short daylight hours, because it suits the length of the day 10-11 hours, if the daylight hours last longer, then radish leaves grow better than root crops.
This vegetable, a month after sowing, gives an excellent harvest, does not require much care, which is why gardeners love it. They take care of him traditionally - they feed, water, loosen the earth. Moreover, the first point is often dispensed with if there is good fertile land on the site. It often happens that summer residents harvest at the beginning of summer, and then in the fall again feast on the crispy, sharp pulp of the root vegetables of this rapidly growing vegetable.
It seems that everything is so simple, but why does it sometimes happen that all the power of a radish is spent on growing tops, shooting, and not on the formation of root crops?
If the radish goes into the arrow, its taste will noticeably decrease, which is why this should not be allowed. And it so happens that beautiful lush greenery grows, but the root crop does not grow.
By the way, do not rush to throw such useless, but lush bushes into the compost pit. They contain many useful substances, in particular, a high content of vitamins. Usually they are used for livestock feed, and the first tender greens can be included in salads.
Some summer residents make very healthy salads at the beginning of summer from leaves of radishes, gooseberries, mulberries, while they have a lot of vitamin C.
But we do not grow radishes in order to eat its leaves, why do not root crops grow? There may be several reasons for this.
Violation of sowing dates
If a radish was sown in the fall (and many do so - they sow it before winter), then the April sun will force it to germinate, and the soil moist after the snow melts will be the best growth condition. The result will be a wonderful harvest as early as May.
And in spring, radishes need to be sown when the ground thaws and the air temperature rises to +10 degrees. In most of the country, this happens in late March or early April. It will grow beautifully until daylight hours increase to 12-13 hours and the summer heat begins. After this, the root crop is no longer worth waiting, the plant goes into the arrow under such conditions. That is why one should not be late with sowing - it is worth being late and sowing in May, the radish will rush to shoot. Sowing dates are very important for the radish harvest.
Unsuitable soil and fertilizers
Radish loves loose sandy loam soils, if the ground is too dense, the roots will not be able to fully develop, they will not have enough air and nutrition. If the soil is too heavy in the garden, it is worth adding sand and wood ash, then digging it up well. Usually, the beds are fertilized before sowing with compost, humus, mineral fertilizers. It is better to do this in the fall, but you can apply fertilizer in the spring, just before sowing, dig the area again, level it, water it, and then sow.
But here it is important not to overdo it, too much nitrogen can provoke lush growth of greenery and early shooting. Better to add compost and superphosphate. Manure contains a lot of nitrogen, fresh manure cannot be fertilized at all, only humus should be applied before sowing, but then there should be little nitrogen among mineral fertilizers, and more potassium and phosphorus.
Many summer residents in the spring (or from autumn) apply mineral fertilizers to the soil, and then, after the emergence of seedlings, they are still watered with diluted (very strongly) slurry. This is only permissible in impoverished, barren lands.
The soil should be fertilized, but without an excess of nitrogen.
Wrong site selection
Radishes need to be grown in open sunny beds, it is desirable to protect them from the wind, which dries out (as they say, "weathered") the earth. Experienced gardeners change the place for it every year and do not sow it where related crops grew in the previous year - radish, cabbage or turnip. It is best to grow radishes after potatoes, onions, or tomatoes. Some owners plant it among the tomatoes, which is good as long as the tomatoes do not form a large shade. When determining a place for radishes, you need to remember the rules of crop rotation.
A moisture-loving culture is sown in moist soil, and then it is tamped down a little more so that each seed is surrounded by moist soil, and not air. The crops, and then the seedlings, are watered from dishes with a divider, it is good if it is a fine sieve. The growing radishes are watered frequently, every 2 or 3 days, and daily in hot dry weather. Better to do it in the evening.
The roots grow up to 30 cm deep, so watering is necessary not only often, but also abundantly, so that the ground gets wet to the desired depth. If you moisten only the upper few centimeters of the earth, then the plant will not fully feed, which means that it will not “waste time” on building up the root crop, but will immediately rush to release the arrow. Watering must be correct, that is, sufficient for growth.
It so happens that a summer resident burdened with troubles forgets to loosen the ground around the plant. This can be detrimental to radishes. Frequent watering will compress the earth, very soon the roots will receive neither moisture nor air. To prevent this from happening, you need to fluff the soil more often.
First, the earth is loosened to a depth of 3 centimeters, then as the plant grows, the depth is increased to 6 centimeters. Loosening the soil is of great importance for the normal formation of the root crop.
Another important condition that an inexperienced summer resident can forget about is the optimal area for each plant. In order for the radish to grow a large succulent root crop, there must be free space between it and neighboring plants. That is why, immediately after the emergence of shoots (on the 5th or 6th day), the sprouts break through, leaving the strongest at a distance of 4 cm from each other. The thinning procedure can then be repeated if, according to the description of the variety, large roots are assumed.
Video "Secrets of growing radishes"
This short but informative video will tell you about the timing of planting radishes and demonstrate the planting process.
Why does radish go to the tops
Why does radish go to the tops, what to do
The first reason why radishes go to the tops is a violation of the planting dates. Radish is a vegetable of short daylight hours; for the normal development of root crops, this plant needs 11-12 hours of daylight hours. For example, a given daylight hours in central Russia occur in the month of March, in April, daylight hours increase to 14 hours, and in May it is already 16 hours. If the daylight hours exceed 15 hours, while the air temperature is kept around 20 degrees and above, then the radish begins to grow tops. To avoid such "whims" of radishes, try to plant it as early as possible, as soon as the ground warms up to + 8 + 10 degrees.
Radish can also go into the tops of the wrong soil. Radish loves loose soil with a high nutrient content, so be sure to add humus, manure, peat or any other suitable ingredients to it before planting. Remember, radishes work well only on neutral or slightly acidic soils.
Ignoring the loosening of the soil around the radish, the lack of thinning, as well as irregular watering can negatively affect the development of root crops. In order to avoid radish leaving in the tops, water the plants every two to three days (in hot dry weather every day), loosen the soil after each watering, thin out no later than a week after germination. It is worth noting that the roots of radish can go up to 25-30 centimeters deep into the garden, so you need to water the seedlings abundantly, otherwise the lack of moisture will provoke the release of "arrows".
Why are there no ovaries?
A common problem when growing radishes is their flowering, or arrowing. It cannot be avoided even in cases when the site was well chosen for the culture, the correct irrigation regime was observed, etc. However, root crops are not formed, instead, arrows with flowers grow in large numbers. The reasons for this phenomenon may be as follows:
- the use of low-quality seeds that were collected from last year's spring crops
- late planting of seeds
- an unsuccessfully chosen variety that is not suitable for a given climatic zone.
Blooming can be prevented by such measures: sowing seeds should be carried out during the period from soil ripening to early May or in late July - early August. It is important that the length of daylight hours does not exceed 14 hours. In addition, it is necessary to choose high quality varieties in accordance with zoning and taking into account the timing of their ripening.
Many gardeners are faced with the problem of the appearance of juicy green mass and the lack of root crops. This phenomenon can be due to a number of factors. For example, an extension of the top can be observed when there is a lack of light or when the seeds are deeply buried when planting. Excess moisture, a large amount of applied fertilizers can also affect the active growth of greenery.
In order for the radish to evenly develop greens and at the same time produce an ovary, you need to choose brightly lit areas for it. Care must be taken to avoid thickening. The most suitable depth for sowing in light soil is 2 cm, in heavy soil - 1.5 cm. It is important that crops for which manure was applied grow on the beds where radishes are sown. The distance between the seedlings should be 4-5 cm.
You should adhere to moderate watering until the root crop is tied, with its appearance, the amount of moisture increases.
Reasons for shooting radish
If the radish bloomed in the beds, first of all, you should remember when it was planted. This culture does not like too high temperatures and long daylight hours.
The plant can go into the arrow for one of the following reasons:
- too late sowing
- thickening of plantings
- wrong choice of fertilizer
- lack of moisture.
What to do to prevent radishes from going to the arrow or to the tops
Summarizing the above, we can say that in order to obtain a good harvest of radish and the absence of shooting at the same time, it is necessary to carry out a number of mandatory measures in advance. The complete algorithm may look like this.
- Seed selection and calibration. It is necessary to purchase planting material in advance that is suitable for growing in the specific conditions of a given region and suitable in terms of ripening. Be sure to pay attention to the shelf life of seeds, for radishes it is no more than 5 years. Seeds need to be rejected and calibrated, removing small ones affected by pests or diseases, as well as having mechanical damage.
- Preparing the landing site. You need to choose a well-lit place where suitable predecessors grew before the radish, with loose fertile soil. It is advisable to dig the site in the fall.
- Planting and leaving. Landing within the established timeframe. Before seedlings emerge, the beds can be covered with plastic wrap to prevent hypothermia. After the emergence of seedlings, it is necessary to thin out and calibrate the plants, removing weak shoots and ensuring a normal spacing between adjacent shoots. During cultivation, it is necessary to regularly water the radish in moderation, loosen the soil. Top dressing should be applied in moderation, especially nitrogen-containing ones.
- When grown in a greenhouse, it is necessary to artificially limit the length of daylight hours, and it is also advisable to prevent the temperature from rising above + 22 ° C.
It should be noted that some varieties of radish have a predisposition to go into the arrow. Therefore, before buying seeds, you should pay attention to this quality. If the gardener cannot fully comply with all the recommendations for caring for crops, then it is better to give preference to varieties that do not have such a propensity. Varieties that grow into an arrow relatively rarely include, for example, Heat, Early Red, Ruby, Ice Icicle.
Why did the radishes go to the tops in the greenhouse?
Probably there was a mistake with the duration of the lighting. Radish produces a root crop with a short daylight hours. It is worth exceeding the lighting time by 1 hour, as instead of a root crop we get tops. I don't remember the exact time.
And, of course, I do not mean special varieties for which the duration of illumination is not important.
I don't quite understand why everyone says that radish is an early vegetable, it loves cool weather, so the earlier you plant it, the better it will grow. I plant radishes three times over the summer and every time it grows great. Of course, on the same bed, part of the radish will inevitably go into the arrow, making sure that all one hundred percent of the radish does not let go of the arrow is probably not realistic. But 1-2% is a perfectly acceptable amount. If more radish goes into the arrow, then something is wrong with the growing conditions. First of all, you should pay attention to watering and temperature. If you grow radishes in a greenhouse, it may be too hot. But radishes are also hot in summer in direct sunlight. Therefore, at the end of May, the radish in the greenhouse should be ventilated, and in the summer, in the open garden, it should be shaded.
Also, the reason for the appearance of arrows can be thickened plantings of radish, that is, as soon as the radish begins to grow a root crop, it must be thinned out, and not wait until the radish becomes equally large everywhere.
The requirements for fertilizers in radish are not large - humus, maybe a section of a cucumber garden, it will be fine, but not fresh manure. Radishes also like loose soil, but these are the preferences of most plants.
Why does radish go to the tops
The rapid growth of radish tops in spring can be due to a number of reasons, which are almost the same as in the problem of the appearance of arrows in a plant. At the same time, the culture does not produce fruits, or even if they appear in the spring, they will be lethargic or small in size.
Failure to comply with soil requirements
If the ground is too warm, then there is a high probability that the radish will go into greens (tops). This limitation is especially true for people who are trying to grow root crops in a residential area. For the growth of radish, it is better to plant it on the balcony, where it is cool.
The second problem with the land is too much nitrogenous fertilizer. It is this chemical element that accelerates and stimulates the growth of greenery. To even out the balance, you can use potassium, for example, ash from oak bark.
You should not be zealous with fertilizers. The more of them, the more energy the plant gives to the development of greenery, but not to the growth of the radish itself. If the soil is fertile, then fertilizers are not required at all.
The third reason is poor drainage. Radish does not like dense soil, so it must be loosened regularly. You can add perlite or sand. The culture loves slightly acidic or neutral soil.
Failure to meet the landing dates
If the planting of radishes is carried out not in spring, but in summer, then you should not wait for the harvest. Even if the plant does not give an arrow, it will still give all its strength to the growth of the tops. Heat and long daylight hours are not the best option for growing root crops.
Due to a lack of moisture, the plant will cease to give strength to the growth of tops and direct them to the formation of a root crop.
The quality of the planting material
It is necessary to choose only those seeds that are intended for growing radishes in a specific climatic zone. In the process of preparing for planting, it is necessary to select only large specimens, 2.5-3 mm in size. In no case should you use seeds affected by diseases or pests, and those that have mechanical damage will not work. The seed storage period is 5 years.
Today, a number of varieties can be distinguished that are quite resistant to the formation of tops: "Zlata", "Presto", "Vera", "Globus" and "Ilka". Do not forget about thinning the beds after the radish appears in the spring.