White fir transplant

White fir transplant

Question: White fir transplant

Hi, I own an Abies concolor "compacta" now the time has come after 15 years to change its position for space requirements. The height of the plant is about 1.20 -1.30 meters, really beautiful plant. My question is this: how likely is it that the transplant will be successful? Thank you and greetings

Carlo Cavalli

Answer: White fir transplant

Dear Carlo, welcome to the in-depth section of our website "Questions and answers", the place where you can ask all the questions about the flowers and plants that cross your mind. Surely it is rather difficult to establish the probability of survival of a plant that we have never seen and that we do not know where it grows, therefore we will limit ourselves to giving you some indications on how you can independently evaluate the success of a possible transplant. First, look at the foliage of his Abies concolor compacta; if this is in good condition or without spots without branches, with an intense and compact color, the tree is in good health. Being a "compact" variety, this plant, despite its age, has certainly maintained smaller dimensions both in the aerial part and in the epigeal part (roots) and this could greatly facilitate the transplant operations. The silver fir is a conifer that also has very deep roots in the soil and therefore the excavation will have to go very deep. The root system of the silver fir could be one of the main obstacles to the transplantation of this species, therefore we advise you to pay particular attention in the excavation phases and to make a hole that goes very deep (at least as much as the height of the his abies consolor compacta). During the excavations, stay far enough away from the stem of the plant, trying to keep this distance even going down into the lower layers of the soil. An excellent trick is to leave unaltered the bread of earth in which the roots and rootlets of the silver fir have grown, to avoid altering the balances that have been established between the root tips and the neighboring soil; in fact, the smaller roots, the radicles, mainly deal with absorption and not the large roots, which have the main function of support. By adopting these basic precautions, the chances of survival of his abies concolor will significantly increase. Transplanting an already adult plant is always a delicate operation and we recommend spring (April-May) or early autumn (September) as the best time.

Spruce: how to grow and care for the Christmas tree

We present thespruce, one of the most common shrubs in our country, especially in mountainous areas, and with a strong symbolic value. Also called spruce, is theChristmas tree of tradition.
Due to the special characteristics of its wood, it is used in construction but also for the construction of musical instruments. Let's find out everything there is to know about this species.

The types of fir that are decorated.

The tree that is usually decorated in our country for the Christmas holidays is the Peccio or Spruce. Less commonly, especially in Northern Europe, silver fir and Caucasian fir are used. Pines or other conifers are rarely used.

The Spruce or Peccio (Picea abies).

The spruce is a conifer belonging to the Pinaceae. Native to central-northern Asia and Europe, it is widespread throughout Northern Europe and the Alps where it is found between 1200 and 1800 meters. In the remaining part of the peninsula it is practically absent except for a few specimens at the Abetone pass. It has a straight and erect trunk and can reach 40 meters in height. It has a majestic bearing with a very narrow hair at the tip. At low altitudes the shape of the canopy changes and expands. The leaves are needle-like and pointed and do not exceed 2.5 centimeters in length. The seeds are contained in the pine cones which have an elongated shape and dimensions between 10 and 20 cm.

Common fir (Abies alba) or White fir.

It is a conifer belonging to the Pinaceae. Widespread throughout Europe although not continuously, in Italy it is found in the Alps and the Apennines up to the Serre dell’Aspromonte at heights ranging from 500 to 1500 meters and sometimes even reaching 2000 meters. It thrives on shady mountain and hill slopes rich in rainfall. It has a straight and slender trunk and reaches heights that can exceed 50 meters and even reach 60 meters. It is also very long-lived and there is more than one specimen that is over 600 years old. It has a pyramid-shaped crown that flattens over the years. The leaves that remain on the tree for up to 10 years are needle-like and have a length between 2 and 3 centimeters. The seeds are contained in almost cylindrical pine cones which are upright and not pendulous on the branches and which are up to 20 cm long.

Caucasian fir (Abies nordmanniana).

It is a conifer belonging to the Pinaceae very similar to the silver fir. It is native to the regions around the Black Sea but is cultivated throughout Southern Europe and therefore also in Italy. It prefers hills and not very high mountains (it grows in a range that goes from 200 to 1200 meters above sea level). It has a straight trunk and can easily reach 60 meters in height, it has a regular crown in the shape of a pyramid / cone and the branches branch off regularly from the trunk without hanging down. The leaves, which remain on the tree for about 6 years, are dark green and needle-shaped with a length of up to 30 centimeters. The seeds are contained in squat pine cones which, like other fir trees, do not hang down but are turned upwards.

L'Silver fir (scientific name Picea pungens), also said Colorado Spruce, or erroneously Silver pine, is a conifer belonging to the family of Pinaceae. It is native to North America and has a hair with characteristic silvery shades.

It shows up with conical bearing, with a trunk erect covered with a scaly and gray bark. It has a very branched crown with leaves needle-like gray-green or tending to blue (for this it is also called Blue fir). It produces pine cones elongated, light brown in color, with paper-like flakes. It also owns a root system very developed.

This plant is very popular due to the color of its foliage and for this reason it is widely used as an ornamental plant in parks and gardens. Often to embellish flower beds or terraces, silver dwarf spruce is used, the equally decorative miniature version.



The Colorado Fir reproduces with the sowing in spring, placing the seeds in a seedbed filled with soil mixed with sand and peat, which must remain humid until germination.

As an alternative to sowing this tree can be propagated by cutting semi-woody during the summer. When the plants have completed sprouting or rooting (depending on the method chosen) we proceed with the transplant in jar and only after a few years we continue with the planting in the open ground (better if done in spring or autumn).


It prefers a terrain soft and well drained.


Love the environments sunny, but it also adapts to semi-shaded areas. It does not fear the cold and is able to withstand temperatures well below zero.


The adult specimens they do not need particular watering, unless you are in a particularly dry period. On the contrary, particular attention should be paid to younger specimens, which must be watered constantly.


It does not require fertilization, but during the planting phase it is advisable to add manure inside the hole.


Removal of the dry branches is sick people, especially if affected by fungal diseases that can compromise the health of the entire plant.

Diseases and parasites

The silver fir fears fungal diseases which the gray mold and the rust. In the event of the onset of one of these diseases, it is necessary to immediately eliminate the affected parts to avoid compromising the whole plant. Also this fir can be attacked by aphids is mites to combat these unwanted guests, the use of specific pesticides is recommended.

Forestry [edit]

Field storage [edit]

As advocated by Coates et al. (1994), [8] thawed planting stock taken to the field should optimally be kept cool at 1 ° C to 2 ° C in relative humidities over 90% (Ronco 1972a). [10] For a few days, storage temperatures around 4.5 ° C and humidities about 50% can be tolerated. Binder and Fielder (1988) [11] recommended that boxed seedlings retrieved from cold storage should not be exposed to temperatures above 10 ° C. Refrigerator vans commonly used for transportation and on-site storage normally 'maintain seedlings at 2 ° C to 4 ° C (Mitchell et al. 1980). [12] Ronco (1972a, b) [10] [13] cautioned against using dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) to cool seedlings he claimed that respiration and water transport in seedlings are disrupted by high concentrations of gaseous carbon dioxide.

Coniferous planting stock is often held in frozen storage, mostly at −2 ° C, for extended periods and then cool-stored (+2 ° C) to thaw the root plug prior to outplanting. Thawing is necessary if frozen seedlings cannot be separated from one another and has been advocated by some in order to avoid possible loss of contact between plug and soil with shrinkage of the plug with melting of ice in the plug. Physiological activity is also greater under cool rather than frozen storage, but seedlings of interior spruce and Engelmann spruce that were planted while still frozen had only brief and transient physiological effects, including xylem water potential, (Camm et al. 1995, Silem and Guy 1998 ). [14] [15] After 1 growing season, growth parameters did not differ between seedlings planted frozen and those planted thawed.

Studies of storage and planting practices have generally focussed on the effects of duration of frozen storage and the effects of subsequent cool storage (e.g., Ritchie et al. 1985, Chomba et al. 1993, Harper and Camm 1993). [16] [17] [18] Reviews of colds storage techniques have paid little attention to the thawing process (Camm et al. 1994), [19] or have merely noted that the rate of thawing is unlikely to cause damage (McKay 1997 ). [20]

Kooistra and Bakker (2002) [21] noted several lines of evidence suggesting that cool storage can have negative effects on seedling health. The rate of respiration is faster during cool storage than in frozen storage, so depleting carbohydrate reserves more rapidly. Certainly in the absence of light during cool storage, and to an indeterminate extent if seedlings are exposed to light (unusual), carbohydrate reserves are depleted (Wang and Zwiacek 1999). [22] As well, Silem and Guy (1998), [15] for instance, found that interior spruce seedlings had significantly lower total carbohydrate reserves if stored for 2 weeks at 2 ° C than if thawed rapidly for 24 hours at 15 ° C . Seedlings can rapidly lose cold hardiness in cool storage through increased respiration and consumption of intracellular sugars that function as cryoprotectants (Ogren 1997). [23] Also, depletion of carbohydrate reserves impairs the ability of seedlings to make root growth. Finally, storage molds are much more of a problem during cool than frozen storage.

Kooistra and Bakker (2002), [21] therefore, tested the hypothesis that such thawing is unnecessary. Seedlings of 3 species including interior spruce were planted with frozen root plugs (frozen seedlings) and with thawed root plugs (thawed seedlings). Thawed root plugs warmed to soil temperature in about 20 minutes frozen root plugs took about 2 hours, ice in the plug having to melt before the temperature could rise above zero. Size of root plug influenced thawing time. These outplantings were into warm soil by boreal standards, and seedlings with frozen plugs might fare differently if outplanted into soil at temperatures more typical of planting sites in spring and at high elevations. Variable fluorescence did not differ between thawed and frozen seedlings. Bud break was no faster among thawed interior spruce seedlings than among frozen. Field performance did not differ between thawed and frozen seedlings.

White Fir

Silver Fir is a Native American of classic Rocky Mountain beauty. This stiff pyramidal evergreen is also known as the Colorado spruce. A member of the pine family, silver fir does well in cold, wet environments in Midwest, East Coast, and Pacific coastal gardens.

Description of silver fir: L'silver fir grows symmetrically to 40 feet or more in height in cultivation and airy sports, ascending branches. The flat, 2-inch long, aromatic needles are greenish-gray or bluish in color, with two whitish or pale lines on the underside. After the needles fall off, circular scars remain on the twigs. Its vertical cones are purplish or yellow-green in color, growing mostly near the top of the tree on the spread of branches.

Growing silver fir: Provided with well-drained acidic soil, silver fir is largely adaptable to sun or partial shade. It can take more abuse from climatic extremes and city stress than other fir trees. This popular spruce is hassle free and requires little maintenance.

Uses of silver fir: Massive to maturity, thefir White is used as a specimen on large properties, or as a screen or background plant.

Species related to silver fir: Fraser fir (A. fraseri) is similar to Douglas fir, but with dark green needles. Other interesting species are the noble fir (A. procera), the Veitch fir (A. Veitchii) and the Korean fir (A. koreana).

Scientific name of silver fir: Abies concolor

As a transplant and care for a Serbian spruce

Native to the Balkans, the Serbian spruce (Picea omorika) grows in a thin, conical habit, making it useful as a windbreak or screen, or in formal plants. Hardy in US Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4a through 7b, this tree grows well in full to partial sun, and tolerates air pollution, moisture, and a range of well-drained soils. Transplant a Serbian spruce into the landscape in the fall, or after the last average frost date in the spring. With proper care, the tree will develop a strong root system and be part of your landscape for years.
Pruning shears
Garden hose
12-6-4 (NPK) slow-release granular fertilizer
Neem oil
Sprayer tank

Show More Instructions

Clear weeds and debris from a planting site that receives partial full sun and offers well-drained, but moist, nutrient-rich soil. Select a location with at least 60 feet of open vertical space to accommodate the mature height of the Serbian spruce.

Dig a hole in the selected site with a shovel, making it twice as wide and equal in depth to the root ball of the Serbian spruce. The hole should be at least 20 meters from other trees, buildings and permanent objects. Insert the shovel blade repeatedly in random places around the sides of the hole to create crevices that promote outward root growth.

Slide the Serbian fir out of its container or remove casings from its ball root. Cut any soft, dark brown to black, dead or broken roots, using a pair of scissors. Cut vertically through any roots that are growing in a circle around the root ball.

Serbian spruce center in the planting hole, spreading any visible roots outwards. Adjust the depth of the hole by adding or removing soil as needed to bring the top of the sod level with the surrounding soil surface.

Half-fill the hole with soil, soil compaction added firmly around the sod. Fill the hole with water and wait for the water to drain completely into the soil. Finish filling the hole with earth, still tamping the added soil around the roots. Do not overfill the hole or bury the Serbian fir deeper than it was already growing

Soil stacks in a 3 -. 4 inch high ring around the perimeter of the buried sod. Fill the resulting basin with water and wait for the water to seep into the soil. Use more soil to fill any depressions caused by settling. It does not step on the ground while it is wet

Roll out a 2 -. At the -4 - inch - deep layer of mulch around Serbian spruce, using a rake. Keep the mulch 4 inches from the trunk to avoid bark rot. Cover the ground for at least 12 cm beyond the drip line of the trees.

Serbian spruce water transplanted at any time less than 1 centimeter of rain falls over a period of seven days. Apply 1 inch of water, filling the inside of the tub with water. Continuing this watering routine until the soil freezes in late fall or winter. Resume watering in spring, after the thaw of the soil. Water the tree throughout the fall and winter if the ground never freezes.

Fertilize Serbian spruce with a 12-6-4 nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium slow release fertilizer every spring, just before the start of new growth, starting one year after transplanting. Apply fertilizer at a rate of 1/3 pound for every 12 inches of canopy width at the widest point. For example, if the widest Serbian spruce spot equals 9 meters, then you need to apply 3 kilos of fertilizer. Spread the granules into a 12- inch-wide ring just below the canopy's outer perimeter. Rake the granules in the first two inches of soil. Water the area thoroughly. Discontinue fertilizer applications when the tree reaches mature size.

Keep the area around and under the tree canopy free of weeds. Replenish or replace mulch every spring to reduce weed growth.

Examine the foliage whenever you water for the presence of green-bodied aphids, or yarn weaving from spider mites. If you find an infestation, mix 2 tablespoons of neem oil with 1 gallon water in a reservoir sprayer. Tank handle pump to pressurize the tank. Spray the solution on the infested needles, coating them completely. Spray the Serbian fir every 7-10 days until pests disappear.

Remove broken or dead branches as soon as they appear. Use scissors to cut branches with a diameter of 1/4 inch or less loppers for diameters of 1 1/2 inches or less, and a pruning seen on diameters greater than 1 1/2 inches. Make each 1/4-inch cut above the swollen ring of fabric, or the branch bark collar, that surrounds the base of the branch.

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