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The subject naturally divides itself into two sections, which we here propose to treat separately, commencing with the science, and passing on to the practice of the cultivation of flowers, fruits and vegetables as applicable to the home garden. The point of view taken is necessarily, as a rule, that of a British gardener. Horticulture, apart from the mechanical details connected with the maintenance of a garden and its appurtenances, may be considered as the application of the principles of plant physiology to the cultivation of plants from all parts of the globe, and from various altitudes, soils and situations.
The lessons derived from the abstract principles enunciated by the physiologist, the chemist and the physicist require, however, to be modified to suit the special circumstances of plants under cultivation. The necessity for this modification arises from the fact that such plants are subjected to conditions more or less unnatural to them, and that they are grown for special purposes which are at variance, in degree at any rate, with their natural requirements.
The life of the plant see Plants makes itself manifest in the processes of growth, development and reproduction. By growth is here meant mere increase in bulk, and by development the series of gradual modifications by which a plant, originally simple in its structure and conformation, becomes eventually complicated, and endowed with distinct parts or organs. The reproduction of the higher plants takes place either asexually by the formation of buds or organs answering thereto, or sexually by the production of an embryo plant within the seed.
The conditions requisite for the growth, development and reproduction of plants are, in general terms, exposure, at the proper time, to suitable amounts of light, heat and moisture, and a due supply of appropriate food.
It is but rarely that direct information on all these points can be obtained; but inference from previous experience, especially with regard to allied forms, will go far to supply such deficiencies.
Moreover, it must be remembered that the conditions most favourable to plants are not always those to which they are subjected in nature, for, owing to the competition of other forms in the struggle for existence, liability to injury from insects, and other adverse circumstances, plants may actually be excluded from the localities best suited for their development. The gardener therefore may, and does, by modifying, improve upon the conditions under which a plant naturally exists.
Thus it frequently happens that in our gardens flowers have a beauty and a fragrance, and fruits a size and savour denied to them in their native haunts. It behooves the judicious gardener, then, not to be too slavish in his attempts to imitate natural conditions, and to bear in mind that such attempts sometimes end in failure. The most successful gardening is that which turns to the best account the plastic organization of the plant, and enables it to develop and multiply as perfectly as possible.
Experience, coupled with observation and reflection, as well as the more indirect teachings of tradition, are therefore of primary importance to the practical gardener. We propose here to notice briefly the several parts of a flowering plant, and to point out the rationale of the cultural procedures connected with them see the references to separate articles at the end of article on Botany.
The Root. The efficiency of drainage, digging, hoeing and like operations is accounted for by the manner in which they promote aeration of the soil, raise its temperature and remove its stagnant water. Owing to their growth in length at, or rather in the immediate vicinity of, their tips, roots are enabled to traverse long distances by surmounting some obstacles, penetrating others, and insinuating themselves into narrow crevices.
As they have no power of absorbing solid materials, their food must be of a liquid or gaseous character. It is taken up from the interstices between the particles of soil exclusively by the finest subdivisions of the fibrils, and in many cases by the extremely delicate thread-like cells which project from them and which are known as root-hairs. Root-Pruning and Lifting. The contrariety is more apparent than real, as the operation consists in the removal of the coarser roots, a process which results in the development of a mass of fine feeding roots.
Moreover, there is a generally recognised quasi-antagonism between the vegetative and reproductive processes, so that, other things being equal, anything that checks the one helps forward the other. The amount of water required, and the times when it should be applied, vary greatly according to the kind of plant and the object for which it is grown, the season, the supply of heat and light, and numerous other conditions, the influence of which is to be learnt by experience only.
The same may be said with respect to the application of manures. The watering of pot-plants requires especial care. Water should as a rule be used at a temperature not lower than that of the surrounding atmosphere, and preferably after exposure for some time to the air. In winter the temperature of the soil, out of doors, beyond a certain depth is usually higher than that of the atmosphere, so that the roots are in a warmer and more uniform medium than are the upper parts of the plant.
The Stem and its subdivisions or branches raise to the light and air the leaves and flowers, serve as channels for the passage to them of fluids from the roots, and act as reservoirs for nutritive substances.
Their functions in annual, biennial and herbaceous perennial plants cease after the ripening of the seed, whilst in plants of longer duration layer after layer of strong woody tissue is formed, which enables them to bear the strains which the weight of foliage and the exposure to wind entail.
The gardener aims usually at producing stout, robust, short-jointed stems, instead of long lanky growths defective in woody tissue. To secure these conditions free exposure to light and air is requisite; but in the case of coppices and woods, or where long straight spars are needed by the forester, plants are allowed to grow thickly so as to ensure development in an upward rather than in a lateral direction.
This and like matters will, however, be more fitly considered in dealing hereafter with the buds and their treatment. Nutri tion assimilation by the leaves includes the inhalation of air, and the interaction under the influence of light and in the presence of chlorophyll of the carbon dioxide of the air with the water received from the root, to form carbonaceous food.
Respiration in plants, as in other organisms, is a process that goes on by night as well as by day and consists in plants in the breaking up of the complex carbonaceous substances formed by assimilation into less complex and more transportable substances. This process, which is as yet imperfectly understood, is attended by the consumption of oxygen, the liberation of energy in the form of heat, and the exhalation of carbon dioxide and water vapour.
Transpiration is loss of water by the plant by evaporation, chiefly from the minute pores or stomata on the leaves. In xerophytic plants e. Although transpiration is a necessary accompaniment of nutrition, it may easily become excessive, especially where the plant cannot readily recoup itself. Shading the glass with canvas or washes during the summer months has the same object in view.
Syringing is also beneficial in washing away dirt and insects. Flower-buds are produced either on the old wood, i. The peach, horse-chestnut, lilac, morello cherry, black currant, rhododendron and many other trees and shrubs develop flower-buds for the next season speedily after blossoming, and these may be stimulated into premature growth. Propagation by Buds. The edges of the leaves of Bryophyllum calycinum and of Cardamine pratensis , and the growths in the axils of the leaves of Lilium bulbiferum , as well as the fronds of certain ferns e.
Asplenium bulbiferum , produce buds of this character. It is a matter of familiar observation that the ends of the shoots of brambles take root when bent down to the ground. For some cuttings, pots filled with light soil, with the protection of the propagating-house and of bell-glasses, are requisite; but for many of our hardy deciduous trees and shrubs no such precautions are necessary, and the insertion of a short shoot about half its length into moist and gritty ground at the proper season suffices to ensure its growth.
In the case of the more delicate plants, the formation of roots is preceded by the production from the cambium of the cuttings of a succulent mass of tissue, the callus. It is important in some cases, e. In other cases, where the buds themselves contain a sufficiency of nutritive matter for the young growths, the retention of leaves is not necessary.
The most successful mode of forming roots is to place the cuttings in a mild bottom-heat, which expedites their growth, even in the case of many hardy plants whose cuttings strike roots in the open soil. With some hard-wooded trees, as the common white-thorn, roots cannot be obtained without bottom-heat. It is a general rule throughout plant culture that the activity of the roots shall be in advance of that of the leaves.
Cuttings of deciduous trees and shrubs succeed best if planted early in autumn while the soil still retains the solar heat absorbed during summer. For evergreens August or September, and for greenhouse and stove-plants the spring and summer months, are the times most suitable for propagation by cuttings.
Layering consists simply in bending down a branch and keeping it in contact with or buried to a small depth in the soil until roots are formed; the connexion with the parent plant may then be severed. Many plants can be far more easily propagated thus than by cuttings. In budding , as with roses and peaches, a single bud only is implanted.
Inarching is essentially the promotion of the union of a shoot of one plant to that of another of the same or allied species or variety. The outer bark of each being removed, the two shoots are kept in contact by ligature until union is established, when the scion is completely severed from its original attachments.
This operation is varied in detail according to the kind of plant to be propagated, but it is essential in all cases that the affinity between the two plants be near, that the union be neatly effected, and that the ratio as well as the season of growth of stock and scion be similar. The selection of suitable stocks is a matter still requiring much scientific experiment. The object of grafting is to expedite and increase the formation of flowers and fruit. Scions from a tree which is weakly, or liable to injury by frosts, are strengthened by engrafting on robust stocks.
Lindley has pointed out that, while in Persia, its native country, the peach is probably best grafted on the peach, or on its wild type the almond, in England, where the summer temperature of the soil is much lower than that of Persia, it might be expected, as experience has proved, to be most successful on stocks of the native plum.
The soil in which the stock grows is a point demanding attention. The form and especially the quality of fruit is more or less affected by the stock upon which it is grown. The Stanwick nectarine, so apt to crack and not to ripen when worked in the ordinary way, is said to be cured of these propensities by being first budded close to the ground, on a very strong-growing Magnum Bonum plum, worked on a Brussels stock, and by then budding the nectarine on the Magnum Bonum about a foot from the ground.
The fruit of the pear is of a higher colour and smaller on the quince stock than on the wild pear; still more so on the medlar. On the mountain ash the pear becomes earlier. The effects produced by stock on scion, and more particularly by scion on stock, are as a rule with difficulty appreciable. Of these the most remarkable example is Cytisus Adami , a tree which year after year produces some shoots, foliage and flowers like those of the common laburnum, others like those of the very different looking dwarf shrub C.
We may hence infer that C. Numerous similar facts have been recorded. Among gardeners the general opinion is against the possibility of graft-hybridization. The wonder, however, seems to be that it does not occur more frequently, seeing that fluids must pass from stock to scion, and matter elaborated in the leaves of the scion must certainly to some extent enter the stock. It is clear, nevertheless, from examination that as a rule the wood of the stock and the wood of the scion retain their external characters year by year without change.
Still, as in the laburnum just mentioned, in the variegated jasmine and in Abutilon Darwinii , in the copper beech and in the horse-chestnut, the influence of a variegated scion has occasionally shown itself in the production from the stock of variegated shoots.
At a meeting of the Scottish Horticultural Association see Gard. Two more dissimilar pears hardly exist. Similar, though less marked, intermediate characters were obvious in the foliage and flowers. Double grafting French, greffe sur greffe is sufficiently explained by its name.
By means of it a variety may often be propagated, or its fruit improved in a way not found practicable under ordinary circumstances. For its successful prosecution prolonged experiments in different localities and in gardens devoted to the purpose are requisite. How this check can be obviated or reduced, with regard to the season, the state of atmosphere, and the condition and circumstances of the plant generally, is a matter to be considered by the practical gardener.
As to season, it is now admitted with respect to deciduous trees and shrubs that the earlier in autumn planting is performed the better; although some extend it from the period when the leaves fall to the first part of spring, before the sap begins to move. If feasible, the operation should be completed by the end of November, whilst the soil is still warm with the heat absorbed during summer.
Attention to this rule is specially important in the case of rare and delicate plants. Early autumn planting enables wounded parts of roots to be healed over, and to form fibrils, which will be ready in spring, when it is most required, to collect food for the plant.
Planting late in spring should, as far as possible, be avoided, for the buds then begin to awaken into active life, and the draught upon the roots becomes great. It has been supposed that because the surface of the young leaves is small transpiration is correspondingly feeble; but it must be remembered, not only that their newly-formed tissue is unable without an abundant supply of sap from the roots to resist the excessive drying action of the atmosphere, but that, in spring, the lowness of the temperature at that season in Great Britain prevents the free circulation of the sap.
The comparative dryness of the atmosphere in spring also causes a greater amount of transpiration then than in autumn and winter. Another fact in favour of autumnal planting is the production of roots in winter. The best way of performing transplantation depends greatly on the size of the trees, the soil in which they grow, and the mechanical appliances made use of in lifting and transporting them.
The smaller the tree the more successfully can it be removed. The more argillaceous and the less siliceous the soil the more readily can balls of earth be retained about the roots.
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Metrics details. Although school garden programs have been shown to improve dietary behaviors, there has not been a cluster-randomized controlled trial RCT conducted to examine the effects of school garden programs on obesity or other health outcomes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a one-year school-based gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention called Texas Sprouts on dietary intake, obesity outcomes, and blood pressure in elementary school children. The delayed intervention was implemented the following academic year and received the same protocol as the intervention arm. Child outcomes measured were anthropometrics i.
History of Art and Architecture; Innovation and Management (Tufts Gordon Institute); Interdisciplinary; International Literary and Cultural Studies.
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Rebecca Clarke's Sonata for Viola and Piano is one of the few works by a female composer considered standard repertoire for violists. One of the first generation of women to study at the Royal College of Music, Clarke's gender clearly influenced her compositions. Feminist musicologist Susan McClary has written extensively about the gendered implications of the sonata form; she argues that the late 19th-century sonata form is in essence the story of a male protagonist defeating feminine threats to his masculinity. When the composer is a woman, like Clarke, the possibility that this formula is either consciously or unconsciously subverted by the composer must be considered. Several scholars have noted that Clarke's sonata in some ways appears to subvert the typical sonata narrative.
Floriculture and horticulture have always been two parallel and very distinct agronomic realities.
Genome editing with the CRISPR-Cas system: an art, ethics and global regulatory perspective.
Ohio State University, Dept. Identifying options of climate change mitigation is of global interest to researchers. Whereas wide range of techniques of reducing greenhouse gas GHG emissions and carbon sequestration have been studied in row crops and forest systems, little research has been done on the ornamental horticulture. The ornamental industrial sector has indeed some negative impacts on the global environment, but also presents opportunities to reduce GHG emissions and increase C sequestration. Thus the objective of this study was to synthesize the potential contributions of some substrates used in the horticultural sector to carbon sequestration. The specific focus of the review is on the possible use of compost, vermicompost and biochar as soilless substrate substitutes for containerized ornamental plants production.
A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human manipulation, but some originate from wild plants that have distinctive characteristics. Horticulturists generally believe the word cultivar [nb 1] was coined as a term which means "cultivated variety". Popular ornamental garden plants like roses , camellias , daffodils , rhododendrons , and azaleas are commonly cultivars produced by breeding and selection or as sports , for floral colour or size, plant form, or other desirable characteristics. Trees used in forestry are also special selections grown for their enhanced quality and yield of timber. Cultivars form a major part of Liberty Hyde Bailey 's broader group, the cultigen ,  which is defined as a plant whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity. In recent times, the naming of cultivars has been complicated by the use of statutory patents for plants and recognition of plant breeders' rights.
Faculties of Agriculture and Graduate Studies Master of Fine Arts in Creative Non-Fiction (King's) 16 Yu, MengYu. Truro, NS.
PhD thesis, Victoria University. ALdrees, Ghada Ahmed The role of cosmopolitanism on perceptions of authenticity of perfumes and consumer behaviour: an investigation in Saudi Arabia. Other Degree thesis, Victoria University.RELATED VIDEO: Webinar - Video-arte in USA e tradizione artistica europea: Bill Viola
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Many landscapes look drab and dreary in January, and extremely cold temperatures across the state have presented gardeners with an even bigger challenge than usual this winter. I came away having seen the light at the end of the proverbial tunnel and remembering that the warm days of spring will soon be upon us. The conference will begin with an 8 a. Green is participating in a key U. Department of Agriculture policymaking board. Green will represent consumer interests as well as serve on the specialty crop and the relevancy and adequacy committees. Mac was a Maine coon cat, a breed known for its large size, long coat and intelligence.
Record details. Source: Imaginations Journal. Subjects: Banksy ; Street art ; Exhibitions.