Persimmon mediterranean fruit trees

Persimmon mediterranean fruit trees

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Persimmon mediterranean fruit trees (MFT) (*Diospyros kaki* Thunb) is a valuable Japanese fruit tree species native to the islands of the Izu, Shikoku, and Kyushu regions of Japan. Fruit, such as the medlar, is a delicious fruit that has received attention from both Japanese and foreign consumers for a long time. Japan is the second-largest exporter of fresh fruit to the United States (US).^[@r1],[@r2])^ *D. kaki* is a very important tree species in Japan's agro-forestry economy. The production area of this tree increased from about 20,000 hectares in the 1990s to over 60,000 hectares by the year 2011.^[@r3])^

The production area of this tree is being promoted by the Japan Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Institute (JAFFRI), and by the Japanese government through its "AERA Program" from 1995, which has supported efforts in several ways, including field tests, to promote *D. kaki* as a fruit tree for the future. During the last three decades, several studies on the agronomic characteristics and seedlings of *D. kaki* were conducted, and a complete genome sequence was recently reported by Takatsuto *et al.*^[@r4])^

The genus *Diospyros* is the largest genus of the family Ebenaceae, and comprises approximately 100 species distributed throughout Asia, Africa, and the Pacific.^[@r5])^ The *Diospyros* genus is the most primitive group of the eucalypt family.^[@r6])^ The fruit characteristics of the *Diospyros* genus are similar to those of the eucalypt genus *Eucalyptus*, including the characteristics of being a monoecious tree and having a hard and warty/scaly fruit with a fibrous or leathery shell and flesh.

Although many researchers have tried to cultivate *Diospyros*, the conventional breeding methods that have been used to date have not succeeded. The fruit characteristics of *Diospyros* fruits include the size and hardness of the fruit and the length of the fruit season, which are similar to those of the family Eucalyptus, but its breeding cycle is slow and requires a long breeding period. In addition, few breeding lines and cultivars have been developed, and they are mainly cultivated in the tropics and subtropics.

As a result of a study on the breeding cycle and characteristics of *D. kaki* by JAFFRI researchers, we found that *D. kaki* has a similar breeding cycle to that of the family Eucalyptus. Furthermore, a comparison of chromosome characteristics of *D. kaki* and other species of the family Eucalyptus indicated that *D. kaki* possesses characteristics that are intermediate between those of the Eucalyptus species and *Musa* species, and the breeding cycle of *D. kaki* is slow. In addition, *D. kaki* has a diploid number of 52 and a chromosome configuration of 42 = 18A + 14. At the chromosome level, the karyotype of *D. kaki* shows that chromosomes 2 and 4 possess one centromere per pair, chromosomes 7 and 9 possess two centromeres per pair, and chromosomes 1, 6, 8, 10 and 13 possess three centromeres per pair.^[@bibr16-1759091418781889]^ The chromosome of *D. kaki* was found to have fewer centromeres than those of *E. camaldulensis*, *E. tereticornis*, *E. globulus* and *E. viminalis* (the species with which it has a close relationship) ([Table 1](#table1-1759091418781889){ref-type="table"}). In addition, the karyotype of *D. kaki* was found to be similar to those of other *Solanaceae* species, for example, *Lycium barbarum*, *Solanum lycopersicum* and *S. indicum*, with the exception of the *S. indicum* centromeres ([Table 1](#table1-1759091418781889){ref-type="table"}). In summary, the karyotype of *D. kaki* is quite different from those of the other six Eucalyptus species and the closely related species, *Musa*, which have been completely identified, but it is similar to those of other Solanaceae species and *Solanum*, which have been partially identified.


The Chromosome Number and C-Positions of *Dendrobium* and *Solanum* Species.